Grover Cleveland

President Grover Cleveland

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22nd and 24th President of the United States


March 4, 1885 – March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1897


STEPHEN GROVER CLEVELAND was born March 18, 1837, the fifth of nine children to Richard Falley Cleveland and Ann Neal Cleveland. He was named after Stephen Grover, the previous minister of the church where his father was now pastor. In 1842, the family moved to Fayetteville, New York, a small farming community on the Erie Canal, where his father became pastor of the Presbyterian church. Young Cleveland attended the local school and at 13 attended the Clinton Liberal Institute in nearby Clinton, New York. His father died suddenly on October 1, 1853 and at 16 young Cleveland lost any hopes for college. His older brother William was a teacher at the New York Institute for the Blind and Cleveland was hired on as a teacher. In 1855, Cleveland left his teaching post. He decided to look for work in Cleveland Ohio as he wanted to be a lawyer and the west had always intrigued him. On his way, he stopped to visit his uncle, Lewis Allen a wealthy and nationally famous cattle breeder in Buffalo, New York. Allen convinced Cleveland to remain in Buffalo, gave him a job and by 1859 after studying law with friends of his uncle’s, Cleveland was admitted to the New York bar. He immediately offered a job with Rodgers, Bowen and Rodgers, which was where he had studied law, and he accepted. As the Civil War broke out, Cleveland was ever mindful of the support he provided for his mother and sisters. When he was drafted he borrowed money to hire a substitute to serve in his place, which was a common practice permitted under the law.


Students and Teachers of US History this is a video of Stanley and Christopher Klos presenting America's Four United Republics Curriculum at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. The December 2015 video was an impromptu capture by a member of the audience of Penn students, professors and guests that numbered about 200.

In 1862, Cleveland was elected Democratic Supervisor of his Buffalo ward and in 1863, he was appointed assistant district attorney of Erie County. He crusaded against crime and corruption and made a name for himself. In 1870, Cleveland ran for Sheriff of Buffalo, and won the election and as Sheriff he continued his crusade against corruption. His term ended in 1873, and he returned to practicing law. He becomes one of Buffalo’s most successful attorneys, owing more to hard work than brilliant talent.

In 1881, Cleveland was asked to run for mayor of Buffalo by the Democratic Party because of his work against corruption and he accepted. At forty-four, he was single and moderately wealthy and easily won the election and took office in 1882. Mayor Cleveland fought the city aldermen who were a corrupt circle of politicians from both parties. He vetoed bills in an attempt to cut the political graft that was rampant. He became know as the “veto mayor”.

The party leaders of New York needed a new face in order to reconcile a deadlock for the nomination of a new Governor. Cleveland was chosen, and running on his reputation for being an honest politician, he won the election without making a single campaign speech. As Governor, Cleveland continued his campaign against corruption and he also continued to liberally apply his veto power.




In 1884, the Republicans nominated James G. Blain, who had been accused of accepting bribes, for president. In July 1884, the Democrats nominated Cleveland for president, deciding that with his irrefutable public record, he would win the votes of both the democrats and the Republicans who were unhappy with their party’s choice for candidate. The campaign inspired many personal attacks, with Blain being accused of aiding the railroads at public expense and Cleveland being accused of fathering a illegitimate child, which Cleveland courageously acknowledged. Ten years before Cleveland's presidency, store clerk Maria Halpin named him as the father of her illegitimate son. Cleveland won the election by a slim margin over Blaine. The electoral votes were Cleveland 219 to Blaine’s 182.

Cleveland was inaugurated March 4, 1885 and continued his independent and conscientious but conservative course. He continued to fill government posts with qualified people, not party loyalists and he persuaded Congress to repeal an act that kept incompetent officeholders in office because of the length of their service. He found himself continually at odds with the Republican controlled Senate.




On June 2, 1886, 49-year-old Cleveland became the first and only president to be married in the White House. Cleveland's bride was his ward, Frances Folsom, the 22-year-old daughter of his late law partner and friend, Oscar Folsom. For years, Cleveland acted as executor of Folsom's estate, but no one suspected his interest in Frances until he proposed marriage after her graduation from Wells College. The wedding ceremony took place in the Blue Room with fewer than 40 people present. The couple had five children: Ruth Cleveland (1891-1904); Ester Cleveland (1893-1980); Marion Cleveland (1895-1977); Richard Folsom Cleveland (1897-1974) and Francis Grover Cleveland (1903-1995).

In the election of 1888, Cleveland was running against Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. Although Cleveland received 100,000 more popular votes than Harrison, he lost the election in electoral votes receiving 168 against Harrison’s 233.

Cleveland returned to New York City and resumed his law practice in 1889. However, three years later the Democrats once again nominated him. His Republican opponent was again Benjamin Harrison. Despite arguments within his own party, Cleveland decisively defeated President Harrison 277 electoral votes to 145. Cleveland became the only President to be reelected after defeat.




On March 4, 1893, Cleveland once more took the presidential oath. The Depression of 1893 struck his administration hard. Some Democrats saw salvation in free coinage of silver, but Cleveland was able to persuade Congress to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in an effort to improve the economic situation. However, by focusing on monetary policy rather than on direct assistance to the needy, Cleveland lost the support of his party.

The Democratic party was split by the end of Cleveland’s second term. They had nominated both William Jennings Bryan and a rival candidate for president. Cleveland removed himself from the campaign and the Republican candidate, William McKinley easily defeated both Democratic nominees.

On March 4, 1897, Cleveland turned the presidency over to McKinley and retired to a home he had purchased in Princeton, New Jersey. He remained a public figure, lecturing and writing and engaging in business affairs, most notably as a Trustee of the Equitable Life Assurance Society and as President of the Association of Life Insurance Presidents. He died in Princeton on June 24, 1908.


 Grover Cleveland -- Autograph letter signed to A.S. Abell Company, signed “Grover Cleveland”.  Four pages small 8vo - Pages 1 and 4 and Pages 2 & 3.

Transcript:
                                                              Buzzards Bay
                                                            Sept. 11, 1900

Msrs. A.S. Abell Company
            Gentlemen:

                        I hope that I have not grown heedless of any duty I owe my countrymen; but I am not inclined to publicly declare my strengths and opinions in the political situation.  This I supposed was quite clearly expressed in my note recently published in the New York Herald.

            For a number of years, I have been abused and ridiculed by professed democrats, because I have not hesitated to declare that Bryanism is not Democracy.  I have had the consolation of seeing those who professed to share my belief run to cover, and of noting a more headlong rush after anti-democratic vagaries.

            My opinions have not changed.  Why then should I speak when bedlam is at its height?  Perhaps I am too strong in my opinions.  At any rate I should say (?) things; and all to no purpose except to add to the volume of abuse which, undefended, I have so long borne.

            I received this morning a clipping from a German newspaper, containing my note to the Herald with this comment: “That was wise.  That part of the American people who most need instruction at this time, would not listen to Grover Cleveland; but the only thanks they would give him for his well meant (?) would be to open upon him a new bombardment of poison and dish; the other part do not seem to be taught by any one (?) to vote right next November.”

            Think about it.  You are not however to suppose for a moment that I could be induced to do anything in aid of McKinleyism or any phase of Republicanism.

            I suppose it is a case of being “damned if I do, and damned if I don’t”; but I have made up my mind that I am entitled to decline enlistment in the war between Bryanism and McKinleyism.

            This communication is strictly confidential.  It is written because I cannot ignore your letter. 
                                                                        Yours truly
                                                                                                Grover Cleveland






By: Stanley Yavneh Klos
  • First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: 13 British Colonies United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774 (Georgia joined in 1775)  and governed through a British Colonial Continental Congress.  Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Second United American Republic: The United States of America: 13 Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 states on July 2nd, 1776 (New York abstained until July 8th), and governed through the United States Continental CongressJohn Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union was founded by 13 States on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation, and governed through the United States in Congress Assembled.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People  was formed by 11 states on March 4th, 1789 (North Carolina and Rhode Island joined in November 1789 and May 1790, respectively), with the enactment of the U.S. Constitution of 1787. The fourth and current United States Republic governs through  the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled, the U.S. President and Commander-in-Chief, and the U.S. Supreme Court.  George Washington served as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief.




The First United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United Colonies Presidents 
Sept. 5, 1774 to July 1, 1776


September 5, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 26, 1774
May 20, 1775
May 24, 1775
May 25, 1775
July 1, 1776


The Second United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United States Presidents 
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781

July 2, 1776
October 29, 1777
November 1, 1777
December 9, 1778
December 10, 1778
September 28, 1779
September 29, 1779
February 28, 1781


Commander-in-Chief United Colonies & States of America

George Washington: June 15, 1775 - December 23, 1783


The Third United American Republic
Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789

March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 10, 1781
Declined Office
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
February 1, 1787
February 2, 1787
January 21, 1788
January 22, 1788
January 21, 1789





The Fourth United American Republic
Presidents of the United States of America








Chart Comparing Presidential Powers 
of  America's Four United Republics - Click Here


United Colonies and States First Ladies


1774-1788


United Colonies Continental Congress
President
18th Century Term
Age
09/05/74 – 10/22/74
29
Mary Williams Middleton (1741- 1761) Deceased
Henry Middleton
10/22–26/74
n/a
05/20/ 75 - 05/24/75
30
05/25/75 – 07/01/76
28
United States Continental Congress
President
Term
Age
07/02/76 – 10/29/77
29
Eleanor Ball Laurens (1731- 1770) Deceased
Henry Laurens
11/01/77 – 12/09/78
n/a
Sarah Livingston Jay (1756-1802)
12/ 10/78 – 09/28/78
21
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
09/29/79 – 02/28/81
41
United States in Congress Assembled
President
Term
Age
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
03/01/81 – 07/06/81
42
07/10/81 – 11/04/81
25
Jane Contee Hanson (1726-1812)
11/05/81 - 11/03/82
55
11/03/82 - 11/02/83
46
Sarah Morris Mifflin (1747-1790)
11/03/83 - 11/02/84
36
11/20/84 - 11/19/85
46
11/23/85 – 06/06/86
38
Rebecca Call Gorham (1744-1812)
06/06/86 - 02/01/87
42
02/02/87 - 01/21/88
43
01/22/88 - 01/29/89
36



Constitution of 1787
First Ladies
President
Term
Age
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
57
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
52
Martha Wayles Jefferson Deceased
September 6, 1782  (Aged 33)
n/a
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
40
March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825
48
March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829
50
December 22, 1828 (aged 61)
n/a
February 5, 1819 (aged 35)
n/a
March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841
65
April 4, 1841 – September 10, 1842
50
June 26, 1844 – March 4, 1845
23
March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849
41
March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850
60
July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853
52
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857
46
n/a
n/a
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
42
February 22, 1862 – May 10, 1865
April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
54
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877
43
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
45
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
48
January 12, 1880 (Aged 43)
n/a
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
21
March 4, 1889 – October 25, 1892
56
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
28
March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901
49
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
40
March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913
47
March 4, 1913 – August 6, 1914
52
December 18, 1915 – March 4, 1921
43
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
60
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929
44
March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933
54
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
48
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
60
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
56
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
31
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
50
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
56
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
56
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
49
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
59
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
63
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
45
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
54
January 20, 2009 to date
45





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