Comparison of Presidential Powers

Chart Comparing Presidential Powers 

Presidential Duties
UCCC President
US President &
President Residence, Hospitality Expenses,[i] free postal franking, Clerical [ii] and House staff.[iii]


Yes [iv][v]


Head of State holds the highest ranked position with the vested or implied powers to act as the chief public representative of a sovereign state. Acting as the symbolic national leader, receives foreign and national dignitaries overseeing official hospitality honors;[vi] key participant in military and civil ceremonies.
Yes - The tradition of President’s wife acting as the Presidential House hostess began in 1775 with Dorothy Quincy Hancock, age 28, taking up part-time residence in John Hancock’s Philadelphia residence.[vii]
Yes [viii] - Sarah Jay was only 21 when her husband was elected to the USCC Presidency. In 1780, Sarah joined her husband during Treaty of Paris negotiations & wrote the dinner toast that celebrated the end of the eight year war. 
Yes [ix]   – The last USCA President’s wife,[x] eldest daughter of the 6th Earl of Traquair, whose noble title was “Lady Christina Stuart Griffin.”[xi]  She was renowned for her Presidential residence hospitality[xii] of both foreign and national dignitaries.
Yes and Martha Washington, the first Constitution of 1787 U.S. Presidential wife, was warmly addressed at official President House functions as “Lady Washington.”
Presiding Officer over Congress serving as an "impartial" moderator during debates and relinquishing the chair when Congress resolved itself into a Committee of the Whole to discuss committee matters and resolutions but returning to chair for the debate; could call the question[xiii] and cast his vote.
Yes & each State had one vote with Congress requiring a quorum of 9 States present; only one delegate had to be present for a State to be tallied.  The President, in numerous instances, cast the sole vote for his State in Congress.
Yes & each State had one vote with Congress requiring a quorum of 9 States present; only one delegate had to be present for a State to be tallied.  The President, in numerous instances, cast the sole vote for his State in Congress.
Yes & each State had one vote with a quorum of 7 States but at least two delegates must be present. Important legislation required an affirmative vote of nine or mores States for enactment. States with only one delegate present were not part of the quorum & votes not counted.
No but President has veto to reject a bill passed by Congress. The House and Senate, together, can only override a veto with a two-thirds vote in both houses, which is very rare (110 overrides out of 2,564 from 1789-2014). 
Influence over the Legislative Agenda,[xiv] control of debate, & power to call/adjourn Congress.[xv] A paid delegate by his home State with a duty to his constituency.


No – The May 4, 1781, Rules of the USCA stripped these Presidential powers[xvi] but still paid by his home State with a duty to his constituency.
No but the president submits an annual budget to Congress & has influence over the ways the government spends money.
Judicial duties deciding federal cases such as State land disputes,[xvii] Treason trials,[xviii] and numerous other legal matters.[xix]



No but appoints federal judges, Attorney General, & other judiciary offices with Senate consent.
Executes Treaties,[xx] Military Orders,[xxi] Civil Commissions, Proclamations,[xxii] and legislation.[xxiii]
Yes but only by order or prior approval by Congress
Yes but only by order or prior approval by Congress.[xxiv]
Yes but only by order of Congress
Yes but treaties require Senate advice and consent.
Chief Diplomat with the duties of corresponding with United States representatives abroad and with ministers of foreign powers along with foreign Heads of State.[xxv]
No – Although there were UC Diplomats at work wooing France it was covert, late in John Hancock’s UCCC Presidential term and required little, if any, official Presidential Correspondence.

No – The USCA elected Robert R. Livingston as the 1st Secretary of Foreign Affairs on 08/10/1781 & took over Chief Diplomat duties[xxvi] including hospitality.[xxvii] An act of 02/22/1782, allowed the Secretary to ask & respond to questions in USCA sessions.  
Yes - president appoints Foreign Relation officials (Ambassadors, Secretary of State, etc…)  making and overseeing  U.S. foreign policy including what federal officials can communicate to foreign governments
Executive department oversight that receives and issues official U.S. Correspondence[xxviii] to Congress Committees,[xxix] military officers,[xxx] Departments (Treasury,[xxxi] War,[xxxii] Post Office, etc…) petitioners of Congress,[xxxiii] Heads of States[xxxiv] and national dignitaries.
Yes, most departments reported directly to the President who would bring matters[xxxv] before Congress unless empowered himself to execute or attend to the matters as authorized by prior legislation.[xxxvi]
Yes, most departments reported directly to the President who would bring matters  before Congress unless empowered himself to execute or attend to the matters as authorized by previous legislation
Yes but greatly reduced with USCA shifting the bulk of these duties to USCA Secretary,[xxxvii] Secretary of War, Minister of Finance, US & Foreign Secretary with the departmental executives reporting directly to Congress as opposed to the President.
Yes - Chief administrator ultimately responsible for all executive branch programs. Responsible for seeing that "all laws are faithfully executed," & sets the broad policy for the executive departments and federal agencies. 
Chief Executive - Executes the laws, appoints federal officials, grants pardons &  reprieves



Yes but impeachment  is excluded in Reprieve and Pardon powers

Yes -  Supreme Command over U.S. Military Forces

Key: UCCC President – United Colonies Continental Congress President  ----  USCC President – United States Continental  --- Congress President USCA --- President – United States in Congress Assembled President   ----  US President – United States President & Commander-in-Chief

[i] Journals of the ContinentalCongress, 1774-1789 (JCC, 1774-1789), ed. Worthington C. Ford et al. (Washington, D.C., 1904-37), Saturday, October 25, 1777 – “The Committee on the Treasury reported, that they have audited the account of the honble. President Hancock, for expenditures by him for the use of Congress, and that there is due to him on balance of accounts, the sum of 1,392 32/90 dollars.”
[ii] JCC, 1774-1789., Monday, January 22, 1776 "Resolved, that the president be empowered to employ a private secretary, to be paid by the United Colonies."
[iii] On March 24th, 1785, Richard Henry Lee welcomed his nephew, Thomas Lee Shippen, and invited him to stay with him at the house provided for the President in New York.  The following day Lee's nephew wrote his father William Shippen providing this account of the Presidential residence: "Presidents House, New York, Thursday March 25th, 1785, My very Dear Papa: I arrived here yesterday at noon …  I find my uncle in a palace and think indeed that he does the honor of it with as much ease and dignity as if he had been always crowned with a regal diadem.  The chamber is a spacious and elegant one and prettily furnished.  I now write in it and which way so ever I turn my eyes I find a triumphant Bar, a liberty leaf, a temple of flame on the Hero of Heroes, all these and many more objects of a piece with them being finally represented on the hangings.  Never were more honors, I believe, paid to any man and very seldom with more cordiality than are daily heaped upon the head of the master of this castle.  I rejoice at it because I believe no man ever better deserved them.  Billeted of invitation without number, visiting cards and letters of friendly congratulations fill every mantel piece and corners of every chamber.  Sentinels guard his door, crowds of obedient domestics run to his call and fly at his command, and a profusion of the delicacies of good living crowns his hospitable board.  This you will say is not among the most unpleasant circumstances of the business in your son's estimation."
[iv] Paul H. Smith, et al., eds. Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774-1789 (LDC, 1774-1789), 25 volumes, Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1976-2000), July 15, 1778  -- HenryLaurens to John Lewis Gervais-- "When I tell you that hitherto Congress have only talked of a Table but seem to evade all Measures for covering one, either with an House or Viands, two that I am forced every day to entertain Delegates, Strangers and sometimes Minister plenipo. you will naturally ask, will Mount Tacitus, Mepkin and etc support the expense? I can assure you their produce must be uncommonly ample if they answer in the affirmative.  If my diurnal Account amounted at York Town to near fifty Dollars, what will be the sum in Philadelphia, I hope not much more."
[v] JCC, 1774-1789, Friday, July 31, 1778 "That in the Opinion of your Committee it will be necessary to the reception of Ambassadors That in the Opinion of your Committee it will be necessary to the Reception of Ambassadors and other Foreigners of Importance, that the President of the Congress for the Time being should be allowed a House and Table at the Public Expense, and that a Master of the Ceremonies should be appointed to superintend the same, adjust the Ceremonies and the like, the which by the assent of Congress ought to be framed into Rules and published."  On Wednesday, December 16, 1778, Congress acted on the Committee Report  - "Congress took into consideration the report of the committee appointed to report a proper allowance for the honorable gentlemen who have been or may be elected presidents of Congress, to defray the expenses incidental to the office: Whereupon, Resolved, That the representatives of the Hon. Mr. [Peyton] Randolph, deceased, that the Hon. Mr. [Henry] Middleton, the Hon. Mr. [John]Hancock, and the Hon. Mr. [Henry]Laurens, formerly presidents of Congress, be requested to lay before the Board of Treasury accounts of their expenditures in support of their households while they respectively exercised the office of President, in order to their being adjusted and paid out of the public treasury. Resolved, That a convenient furnished dwelling house be hired, and a table, carriage and servants provided, at the public expense, for the President of Congress for the time being: That the Committee on the Treasury appoint and agree with a steward, who shall have the superintendence of the household of the President, and of the necessary expenditures, and be accountable for such monies as shall, from time to time, be advanced for the purpose aforesaid."
[vi] The Franco-American Alliance and the arrival of the French Minister in Philadelphia necessitated the President spending a great deal of time entertaining, which was costly and found wanting by the French officials.  Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774-1789, September 1779, Virginia Delegate Cyrus Griffin wrote Peace Commissioner Benjamin Franklin  - "The French are a gay people and entertain a good deal; I am afraid Mon. Gérard has thought the Delegates in Congress were rather deficient in that respect; but really the expense of every article is so very enormous, and the allowance from the different states so very trifling, that a person of a handsome American fortune could not entertain frequently without absolute ruin in the period of two or three years-and especially since some of the states think it best for their delegates to live in separate houses. In the course of conversation you would do some of us a singular favor to hint this matter to Mon. Gérard-since it has the appearance of not paying proper Civilities to a man of his worth and elevated station."
[vii] Jared Sparks, The Writings of George Washington: Correspondence and miscellaneous papers relating to the American Revolution:  June, 1775-July, 1776. Volume 3, page 395, President Hancock writes Commander-in-Chief George Washington : "I request the favor, that you will please to honor me with your and your lady's company at my house, where I have a bed at your service, and where every endeavor on my part and Mrs.Hancock's will be exerted to make your abode agreeable. I reside in an airy, open part of the city, in Arch Street, corner of Fourth Street. If this should be agreeable to you, it will afford me much pleasure."
[viii] LDC, 1774-1789, John Adams to Abigail Adams, July 5th, 1777: “My dear Daughter Philadelphia, “Yesterday, being the anniversary of American Independence, was celebrated here with a festivity and ceremony becoming the occasion.  .. Then I went on board the Delaware, with the President and several gentlemen of the Marine Committee, soon after which we were saluted with a discharge of thirteen guns, which was followed by thirteen others, from each other armed vessel in the river; then the gallies followed the fire, and after them the guard boats. Then the President and company returned in the barge to the shore, and were saluted with three cheers, from every ship, galley, and boat in the river. The wharves and shores were lined with a vast concourse of people, all shouting and huzzaing, in a manner which gave great joy to every friend to this country, and the utmost terror and dismay to every lurking tory.”
[ix] Pennsylvania Gazette 1728-1800 on-line publication by Accessible Archives Malvern, PA, John Nagy, Editor - – “"The Delegates of the said State, on Thursday last, at twelve o, signed and ratified the Articles of Confederation; by which act the Confederation of The United States Of America was completed, each and every of the Thirteen States, from New Hampshire to Georgia, both included, having adopted and confirmed, and by their Delegates in Congress ratified the same.  This happy event was immediately announced to the public by the discharge of the artillery on land, and the cannon of the shipping in the river Delaware. At two o’clock his Excellency the President of Congress received on this occasion the congratulations of the Hon. Minister Plenipotentiary of France, and of the Legislative and Executive Bodies of this State, of the Civil and Military Officers, sundry strangers of distinction in town, and of many of the principal inhabitants. The evening was closed by an elegant exhibition of fireworks. The Ariel frigate, commanded by the gallant John Paul Jones, fired a feu de joye, and was beautifully decorated with a variety of streamers in the day, and ornamented with a brilliant appearance of lights in the night. Thus will the first of March, 1781, be a day memorable in the annals of America, for the final ratification of the Confederation and perpetual Union of the Thirteen States of America."
[x] Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774-1789, June 9. 1788 - Delegate Paine Wingate to Hannah Wingate  "My dear friend New York .You wish to know whether Lady Christina (for that is the name of the Presidents lady) is as handsome as you are. I think she is much that and I can add she resembles you in another [favor?], she is sociable & agreeable."
[xi] Rufus Wilmot Griswold, The Republican Court: or, American Society in the days of Washington, New York: Appleton 1865 page 92 - “Congress are sitting; but one hears little more of them than if they were inhabitants of the new-discovered planet.  The President is said to be a worthy man; his wife is a Scotch woman, with the title of LadyChristiana Griffin; she is out of health [i.e. pregnant], but appears to be a friendly disposed woman; we are engaged to dine there next Tuesday.”   Account of Dinner "We have dined today at President Griffin’s, with a company of twenty-two persons, including many members of Congress, &c.  Had you been present you would have trembled for your country, to have seen, heard and observed the men who are its rulers.  Very different they were, I believe, in times past.  All now were high upon the question before them; some were for it, some against it; and there were very few whose behavior bore many marks of wisdom.”
[xii] Rufus Wilmot Griswold, The Republican Court: or, American Society in the days of Washington, New York: Appleton 1865, page 92. “You would not be much pleased with society here.  It is quite enough dissipated. Public dinners, public days, and private parties, may take up a person’s whole attention, if they attend to them all.  The President of Congress gives a dinner one or two or more days every week, to twenty persons – gentlemen and ladies.  Mr. Jay, I believe, gives a dinner almost every week, besides, one to the corps diplomatique;”
[xiii] JCC, 1774-1789, Monday, Tuesday, October 6, 1778 – “The question being put, and the yeas and nays being required by Mr. President [Henry Laurens].” Monday, December 21, 1778  -- “On the question to agree to this resolution, the yeas and nays being required by the President [John Jay]”
[xiv] LDC, 1774-1789, President Henry Laurens to Nicholas Cooke, January 3rd, 1778 -  "I have had the honor of your favor of the 8th November,(1) which had been a very long time on its passage, it reached me no sooner than the 31st December & although I presented it immediately to Congress, no order has been made upon it. The House have been for many days past laboriously engaged not only in matters of the very highest importance within their proper sphere, but also obliged from some unaccountable deficiency in the several departments of Quarter Master General, Clothier General & Commissary General to interfere immediately & personally in the procuring Wagons, Clothing, Meat & Flour for the Army which otherwise from all appearance & from the Representation of the General, would have been dispersed. The deplorable state of the Hospitals has likewise demanded the same degree of attention. ... Your Excellency from a consideration of these circumstances will account for what might in a time of more regularity & tranquility be deemed a neglect of your very Interesting & affecting Address- & I beg you will be assured Sir, I will embrace the earliest proper opening for bringing the State of Rhode Island into view again."  AND President Henry Laurens to Francis Dana, March 1,  1778 -  'Tis now late Sunday Evening & your favor of the 25th Ulto.(1) has but this Instant made its appearance, had it been less deliberate in its progress & not made so long a halt at the Wagon Tavern I might yesterday have received authority for confirming your Acts in the arrangement of the Quarter Mr. General's department. As the case now Stands, tomorrow is mortgaged & it will be difficult to bring the business upon the tapis before Tuesday, however I will make an attempt & if not baulked by some Six-deep Orator will get it in edgeway in the afternoon."
[xv] JCC, 1774-1789, September 8, 1774, “Resolved, That the President may adjourn the Congress from day to day, when he finds there is no business prepared to be laid before them, and may, when he finds it necessary, call them together before the time to which they may stand adjourned.”
[xvi] Rules for Conducting Business, in the United States inCongress Assembled dated May 4th, 1781 entry in Journals of Congress and the United States inCongress Assembled, For the Year 1781, Published By Order of Congress, Volume VII New York: Printed by John Patterson, Appendix.
[xvii] JCC, 1774-1789, Friday, June 2, 1780 - "Resolved, That Congress will as soon as nine States exclusive of those who are parties to the controversy shall be represented, proceed to determine, whether the said Territory be comprehended in whole or in part within the bounds of the United States as the Territories of the respective Committees represented in Congress stood at the tie of its first institution. That if it shall be determined to be so comprehended, the States claiming the jurisdiction thereof in the whole or in part be directed immediately to proceed and appoint Commissioners judicially to decide upon the several matters to be submitted to them agreeably to the said resolutions of 24th September and 2d October last." AND Wednesday, November 14, 1781 - "Whereas the president and supreme executive council of the State of Pennsylvania, have presented a petition to the United States inCongress Assembled, stating, that a controversy has long subsisted between the said State of Pennsylvania and the State of Connecticut, respecting sundry lands lying within the northern boundary of the State of Pennsylvania, and praying for a hearing, in pursuance of the 9th article of the Confederation: Resolved, That the fourth Monday in June next, be assigned for the appearance of the said states of Pennsylvania and Connecticut, by their lawful agents, at the place in which Congress shall then be sitting."
[xviii] JCC, 1774-1789, Wednesday, October 4, 1780, “Resolved, That the Board of War be and hereby are directed to erase from the register of the names of the officers of the army of the United States, the name of Benedict Arnold.”
[xix] JCC, 1774-1789, Monday, December 7, 1778 - "On motion, Resolved, That the Hon. W. A. Atlee, be summoned to attend in Congress at half after six o'clock this evening, to give testimony relative to the charge against Brigadier W. Thompson. Ordered, That Brigadier W. Thompson attend Congress on Monday the 21st instant."
[xx] JCC, 1774-1789, Treaty of Paris Ratification, January 14, 1784 – “The Most Holy and Undivided Trinity ... Done at Paris, this third day of September, in the year of our Lord, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three.  D. Hartley, JohnAdams, B. Franklin, John Jay.’  In testimony whereof, we have caused the seal of the United States to be hereunto affixed. Witness his Excellency Thomas Mifflin, our President, this fourteenth day of January in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty four and in the eighth year of the sovereignty and independence of the United States of America.”
[xxi] John Hancock letter to Major General Arthur St. Clair - “Philadelphia, April 30, 1777, Sir: The Congress having received intelligence of the approach of the enemy towards Ticonderoga have thought proper to direct you to repair thither without delay. I have it therefore in charge to transmit the enclosed resolve and to direct that you immediately set out on the receipt hereof.  John Hancock, Presidt:”  Collection.
[xxii] JCC, 1774-1789, Fast Day Proclamation, March 20, 1781 -- "In times of calamity and impending danger when a vindictive enemy pursues with unrelenting fury a war of rapine and devastation to reduce us by fire and sword, by the savages of the wilderness and our own domestics to the most abject and ignominious bondage; it becomes the indispensable duty of the citizens of these United States with true penitence of heart publicly to acknowledge the over ruling Providence of God, to confess our offences against him, and to supplicate his gracious interposition for averting the threatened danger and preparing our efforts in the defense and preservation of our injured country. ... And it is recommended to all the people of these states, to assemble for public worship, and abstain from labor on the said day. SamuelHuntington, President of the United States inCongress Assembled. Charles Thomson, Secretary of the United States inCongress Assembled"
[xxiii] JCC, 1774-1789, Saturday, March 22, 1777 – “That such of the journals and papers belonging to the secretary's office as are in daily use by Congress, be, each day after the adjournment, sent to the said office; and attested copies of all the resolutions to be carried into execution by any state, officer, person, or persons whatever, and papers necessary to accompany the same, be sent, without delay, to the president, to the by him transmitted by express, post, or other conveyance, as shall appear expedient or necessary; and that attested copies of any resolutions of Congress, or public paper in the office, be delivered to any of its members requiring the same."
[xxiv] JCC, 1774-1789, Thursday, April 17, 1777 – “That the said secretary, previous to his entering upon his office, shall take an oath, to be administered by the president, "well and faithfully to execute the trust reposed in him, according to his best skill and judgment, and to disclose no matter, the knowledge of which shall be acquired in consequence of such his office, that he shall be directed to keep secret;" also, the oath prescribed for officers of the army, and passed the 21st day of October, 1776; and that a certificate thereof be given by the president, and lodged with the secretary of Congress.”
[xxv] JCC, 1774-1789, Friday, February 5, 1779 -- Congress resumed the consideration of the report of the committee on information given by the President; Whereupon, Resolved, That a committee of two be appointed, who, together with the President, shall confer with the Minister Plenipotentiary of France, and prepare proper dispatches and instructions, to be sent by the Marquis de Brétigny to the Count d'Estaing
[xxvi] LDC, 1774-1789, June 14th 1785, Office of Secretary of Congress, Secretary Charles Thomson to Foreign Secretary John Jay, "Sir .The Letter to his Most Christian Majesty as reported has been agreed to. I enclose a Copy that you may have a draught prepared.(1) It is the pleasure of Congress that it be signed by the President and Counter signed by you, and that the seal of the United States should be used in sealing the letter. With great respect &c, C.T."
[xxvii] Rufus Wilmot Griswold, The Republican Court: or, American Society in the days of Washington, New York: Appleton 1865, pages 91 and 92. Describing such a Foreign Secretary diplomatic dinner, the daughter of Abigail Adams writes to her mother, “Yesterday we dined at Mr. Jay’s, in company with the whole corps diplomatique.  Mr. Jay is a most pleasing man, plain in his dress and manners, but kind, affectionate, and attentive; benevolence is portrayed in every feature.  Mrs. Jay dresses gaily and showily, but is very pleasing upon a slight acquaintance.  The dinner was a la mode Francaise, and exhibited more of European taste than I expected to find.  Mr. Gardoqui was as chatty and sociable as his countryman Del Campo, Lady Temple civil, and Sir John more of the gentleman than I ever saw him.  The French minister is a handsome and apparently polite man; the marchioness, his sister, the oddest figure eyes ever beheld: in short, there is so much said of and about her, and so little of truth can be known, that I cannot pretend to form any kind of judgment in what manner or form my attention would be properly directed to her; she speaks English a little, is very much out of health, and was taken ill at Mr. Jay’s, before we went to dinner, and obliged to go home.”
[xxviii] JCC, 1774-1789, Friday, December 12, 1777 – “A letter, of this day, from Mr. PresidentH. Laurens, was read, informing, that "The malady under which he labours has made such a progress as to convince him, by reflecting upon former attacks, that he will not be able to move out of the house, nor to attend his duty in Congress, for some weeks to come; and informing that there is much business upon his table, which it is not in his power to give dispatch to; that every day will accumulate the heap, business will be impeded, and some branches run into confusion; and therefore, humbly moving Congress to proceed to the choice of a president, as an act of propriety and necessity.”
[xxix] JCC, 1774-1789, Friday, January 29, 1779 -  “Congress took into consideration the report of the committee on the information given by the President, and some time being spent thereon, Ordered, That it be re-committed.”
[xxx] Letters of Delegates to Congress, 1774-1789, August 7, 1778, Henry Laurens to John Wells,   I hope to send your Ephemeris two days hence by Capt. Paine. Please to apply to His Excellency the President and request him to communicate to you from my dispatches all such Articles as His Excellency shall think proper to be published, not meaning to bar a communication by any other paper which may be coming abroad earlier than Yours. This is all fair with respect to the Printer and due to the Public.
[xxxi] JCC, 1774-1789, Friday, October 24, 1777 – “Mr. President informed Congress that, with the advice of the Marine Committee, he had, on the 7th January last, issued a warrant on the treasurer for three thousand dollars, in favor of James Morris, Esqr. for two months' pay to the seamen who re-took the brig Lexington, as a gratuity, and also for two months' pay on account of wages due to the seamen of the Lexington, Mr. Morris to be accountable; with an order to the treasurer to omit charging this in the public books, till the books of the Marine Committee arrived, when the money would be properly charged.”
[xxxii] LDC, 1774-1789, January 23rd, 1779 – “The President of Congress presents his Compliments to the Committee appointed to confer with General Washington &ca, and requests the favor of them to complete, & transmit to him a State of the Intelligence ordered to be sent to Count D'Estaing as soon as they conveniently can-that a measure deemed so important may not be affected by any delay in the President's dispatches”
[xxxiii] JCC, 1774-1789, Wednesday, October 29, 1777, A petition from Mons. le Brun, was read, praying that the president would grant him a certificate to verify the death of the late Mons. Charles Tronson du Coudray, brigadier, colonel, and adjutant general of artillery in France, born in Rheims, in the province of Champeigne, which happened the fifteenth day of September, 1777, and representing that such a certificate is necessary for his family, and that he would wish to have it triple, in order to send it to his brother by different ways:3 Whereupon, Ordered, That the prayer of the petition be granted.
[xxxiv] JCC, 1774-1789, Tuesday, July 14, 1778 - “The Sieur Gérard being arrived in town, and having delivered to the President a copy of a letter from his most Christian Majesty, signed Louis, and underneath Gravier de Vergennes, the same was read; Whereupon, Resolved, That his excellency le Sieur Gérard be received as minister plenipotentiary from his most Christian Majesty to the Congress of the United States of America.”
[xxxv] JCC, 1774-1789, Thursday, May 18, 1775, “The president laid before the Congress, some important intelligence he receivd. last night, by express from New York, relative to the surprising and taking of Ticonderoga, by a detachment from Massachusetts bay and Connecticut.”
[xxxvi] JCC, 1774-1789, Tuesday, March 25, 1777, “Resolved, That the several commissioners of the loan offices, hereafter, make monthly returns to the Board of Treasury of the cash in their respective offices, and that the same be drafted by warrants from the president only, which, previous to their being paid, shall be entered at the treasury office, and the entry certified on the warrant.”
[xxxvii] JCC, 1774-1789, ed. Worthington C. Ford et al., January 28, 1782, - “In order that the President may be relieved from that load of the business with which he is unnecessarily encumbered, that the officers at the head of the several boards executive departments lately established, may be enabled to execute the duties required of them, and that business may be conducted with regularity and dispatch, Resolved, That it shall be the business of the Secretary: 1st. To transmit to the Superintendent of finance, all papers referred to him by Congress; as well as an authenticated copy of every act, ordinance and resolution of Congress touching the finances of the United States and particularly of those which relate to supplies, the expenditure of public money or the settlement of public accounts: to the Secretary at War, all papers referred to him by Congress; as well as an authenticated copy of every act, ordinance and resolution touching his department and particularly of those which relate to military preparations or the land forces of the United States and: to the Secretary or agent of marine, or to the person entrusted with the duties of the office of Secretary or agent of marine, all papers referred to him by Congress; as well as an authenticated copy of every act, ordinance or and resolution touching his department and particularly those which relate to naval preparations and maritime matters: and to the Secretary for foreign affairs, all papers referred to him by Congress; as well as an authenticated copy of every act, ordinance and resolution of Congress touching his department and particularly of those which relate to the intercourse between the U. S. and foreign nations or which it may be necessary to communicate to the Ministers of these United States at foreign courts. 2d. To return such answers as Congress shall direct to be given to the memorials petitions and communications: To keep a daily register account of all memorials, petitions and communications received by Congress, noting therein their object and the steps taken respecting them; and lay the said account or register every day, on the table of Congress for the inspection of the members. 3. To return such answers as Congress shall direct to be given to the memorials, petitions and communications, except where Congress shall judge it proper that the same be given by their President, or where it shall be the duty of any of the executive departments to return such answers: 4th. To attend Congress during their sessions, and, in their recess, to attend the committee of the states, to read the public dispatches, acts, ordinances and reports of committees, and to make the proper entries in the journals; to authenticate all acts and proceedings not specially directed to be authenticated by their President; and to keep a register of all treaties, conventions and ordinances: 5th. To cause to be made and laid upon the table for every State represented in Congress, a copy of every ordinance or report upon a matter of importance, and not of a secret nature, for the consideration of which a day is assigned: 6th. To keep the public seal, and cause the same to be affixed to every act, ordinance or paper, which Congress shall direct: 7th. To superintend the printing of the journals and publications ordered by Congress: 8th. To keep a book in which shall be noted in columns, the names of the several members of Congress, the State which they represent, the date of their appointments, the term for which they are appointed, and the date of leave of absence. Resolved, That so much of the act of  22 March, 1777, as directs that attested copies of resolutions coming within the purview of this act, be sent to the President, to be transmitted by him, be, and hereby is repealed. Resolved, That the salary of the Secretary of the United States inCongress assembled, be three thousand dollars per annum."

Students and Teachers of US History this is a video of Stanley and Christopher Klos presenting America's Four United Republics Curriculum at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. The December 2015 video was an impromptu capture by a member of the audience of Penn students, professors and guests that numbered about 200.

1785 Broadside of the "Estimate of the Annual Expenditure of the Civil Departments of the United States, on the present Establishment” showing a considerable sum of money spent on Presidential Household expenses.  It is important to note that no paper Continental dollars were issued after 1779, and they had stopped circulating as money by 1781. In 1785, the United States in Congress Assembled made the dollar the official unit of account of the U.S. government, but did not issue physical dollar currency, thus by "dollars" they meant the Spanish milled dollar. No one denominated any transactions in Continental paper dollars after 1781.  The 12,000 Spanish Milled Dollars for the President Richard Henry Lee's Presidential Household translates into about $1.9 million in today's dollars. -- Library of Congress digital image.

The Congressional Evolution of the United States of America 

Continental Congress of the United Colonies Presidents 
Sept. 5, 1774 to July 1, 1776

September 5, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 26, 1774
May 20, 1775
May 24, 1775
May 25, 1775
July 1, 1776

Commander-in-Chief United Colonies & States of America

George Washington: June 15, 1775 - December 23, 1783

Continental Congress of the United States Presidents 
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781

July 2, 1776
October 29, 1777
November 1, 1777
December 9, 1778
December 10, 1778
September 28, 1779
September 29, 1779
February 28, 1781

Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789

March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 10, 1781
Declined Office
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
February 1, 1787
February 2, 1787
January 21, 1788
January 22, 1788
January 21, 1789

Presidents of the United States of America

D-Democratic Party, F-Federalist Party, I-Independent, R-Republican Party, R* Republican Party of Jefferson & W-Whig Party 

 (1881 - 1881)
*Confederate States  of America

Chart Comparing Presidential Powers Click Here

United Colonies and States First Ladies

United Colonies Continental Congress
18th Century Term
09/05/74 – 10/22/74
Mary Williams Middleton (1741- 1761) Deceased
Henry Middleton
05/20/ 75 - 05/24/75
05/25/75 – 07/01/76
United States Continental Congress
07/02/76 – 10/29/77
Eleanor Ball Laurens (1731- 1770) Deceased
Henry Laurens
11/01/77 – 12/09/78
Sarah Livingston Jay (1756-1802)
12/ 10/78 – 09/28/78
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
09/29/79 – 02/28/81
United States in Congress Assembled
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
03/01/81 – 07/06/81
07/10/81 – 11/04/81
Jane Contee Hanson (1726-1812)
11/05/81 - 11/03/82
11/03/82 - 11/02/83
Sarah Morris Mifflin (1747-1790)
11/03/83 - 11/02/84
11/20/84 - 11/19/85
11/23/85 – 06/06/86
Rebecca Call Gorham (1744-1812)
06/06/86 - 02/01/87
02/02/87 - 01/21/88
01/22/88 - 01/29/89

Constitution of 1787
First Ladies
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
Martha Wayles Jefferson Deceased
September 6, 1782  (Aged 33)
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825
March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829
December 22, 1828 (aged 61)
February 5, 1819 (aged 35)
March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841
April 4, 1841 – September 10, 1842
June 26, 1844 – March 4, 1845
March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849
March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850
July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
February 22, 1862 – May 10, 1865
April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
January 12, 1880 (Aged 43)
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
March 4, 1889 – October 25, 1892
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913
March 4, 1913 – August 6, 1914
December 18, 1915 – March 4, 1921
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929
March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
January 20, 2009 to January 20, 2016

January 20, 2016 – Present       46

Capitals of the United Colonies and States of America

Sept. 5, 1774 to Oct. 24, 1774
May 10, 1775 to Dec. 12, 1776
Dec. 20, 1776 to Feb. 27, 1777
March 4, 1777 to Sept. 18, 1777
September 27, 1777
Sept. 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778
July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783
June 30, 1783 to Nov. 4, 1783
Nov. 26, 1783 to Aug. 19, 1784
Nov. 1, 1784 to Dec. 24, 1784
New York City
Jan. 11, 1785 to Nov. 13, 1788
New York City
October 6, 1788 to March 3,1789
New York City
March 3,1789 to August 12, 1790
Dec. 6,1790 to May 14, 1800       
Washington DC
November 17,1800 to Present

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U.S. Dollar Presidential Coin Mr. Klos vs Secretary Paulson - Click Here

The United Colonies of North America Continental Congress Presidents (1774-1776)
The United States of America Continental Congress Presidents (1776-1781)
The United States of America in Congress Assembled Presidents (1781-1789)
The United States of America Presidents and Commanders-in-Chiefs (1789-Present)

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