Ronald Reagan

Ronald W. Reagan

40th President of the United States

under the Constitution of 1787

Draft of Ronald Reagan speech which included the line "Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" This draft contains handwritten edits and comments supplied by the National Security Council. Copy of handwritten Reagan note to Andropov regarding the arms reduction process -- Courtesy of: National Archives and Records Administration

Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, the second of two sons of Nelle Wilson and John (Jack) Edward Reagan in Tampico, Illinois. His Irish-American father was a Democrat, know for his outspoken opposition of racial bigotry. The family settled in Dixon, Illinois when Ronald was 9 years old. His mother taught him to read at an early age. He became known by the nickname “Dutch”. In high school he professed an interest in three factors that would dominate his life – sports, drama and politics. Working his way through Eureka College, he earned a BA in economics and sociology in 1932. A 1937 screen test won him a contract with Warner Brothers through which he would appear in over 50 films before moving on to a television career. He became the host of the popular television series “Death Valley Days” and was spokesman for the General Electric Company. Reagan served six terms as president of the Screen Actors Guild.

In 1940 Reagan married actress Jane Wyman. They had one daughter, Maureen and adopted a son Michael in 1945. They were divorced in 1948. In 1952, he married Nancy Davis who was also an actress. Ronald and Nancy had two children, Patricia and Ronald.

Students and Teachers of US History this is a video of Stanley and Christopher Klos presenting America's Four United Republics Curriculum at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. The December 2015 video was an impromptu capture by a member of the audience of Penn students, professors and guests that numbered about 200.

A member of the United States Army Air Corps from 1942 to 1945, he was rejected for active duty because of poor eyesight and spent the war years narrating training films. He was discharged in 1945 with the rank of captain.

Reagan was originally a Democrat and an admirer of Franklin Roosevelt. Throughout the 1950’s his policies and ideals moved toward conservatism and he changed his registration to Republican in 1962. With support of businessmen and conservative backers, Reagan ran for Governor of California in 1966. He easily defeated incumbent Democratic Governor Edmund “Pat” Brown and served two terms. During this time he became a national political figure. When he left the office of Governor of California, the state budget showed a $550 million surplus.

Reagan made the decision to seek the Republican nomination for the Presidency of the United States in 1980. Mentioned as a presidential contender in every campaign since 1968, Republican rivals thought him too old to be a force. With well-financed, loyal support, he swept through the primaries and secured the Republican presidential nomination at the Convention. He chose George Bush to be his running mate. With voters troubled by inflation and the fact that Iran had been holding American hostages for the past year, the Republicans were swept into office, not only the Presidency, but the Senate and House providing a bipartisan conservative majority as well. Reagan won 489 electoral votes to 49 for incumbent President Jimmy Carter. On January 20, 1981, Reagan took office. Sixty-nine days later on March 30th he survived an assassination attempt by John W. Hinckley, Jr., recovering quickly and returned to duty. His popularity soared. Dealing skillfully with Congress, Reagan was able to obtain legislation to stimulate economic growth, curb inflation, increase employment, and strengthen the national defense. He set on a course of cutting taxes and government expenditures and refused to deviate from it even when the strengthening of defense forces led to a large deficit.

During his first term in office Reagan pursued a new direction to get the government off the backs of the people and not spending more that it took in. The Reagan economic policy, known as ‘Reaganomics” was doubtful when in 1982-83 a severe recession diminished its appeal. Public opinion indicated a growing conviction that previous tax cuts had benefited the rich. 1982 saw the Nation’s unemployment rate the highest in 40 years. Reagan instrumented an overhaul of the income tax code, eliminating many deductions and exempted millions of people with low incomes in 1986. He was able to get Congress to approve a program to increase defense spending and budget tax cuts. The Nation began to enjoy its longest recorded period of peacetime prosperity without recession or depression. This strong economic recovery was key to Reagan winning a landslide re-election victory in 1984 against Democratic challengers Walter Mondale and Geraldine Ferraro.

Reagan’s approach to foreign policy was to achieve “peace through strength”. He increased defense spending by 35%. He sought to improve relations with the Soviet Union. In March 1983 he announced his Strategic Defense Initiative, which became know publicly as Star Wars. This was perceived by the Soviets as a threat. Tense meetings with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev resulted in the negotiation of a treaty eliminating intermediate-range nuclear missiles. Reagan also declared war on international terrorism. US Marines were sent to Lebanon in late 1982 after heavy casualties suffered by the Marines in the bombing in Beirut raised anxieties. When evidence was brought forward that Libya was involved in an attack on American soldiers in a West Berlin nightclub, Reagan sent American bombers to Libya. He likewise ordered naval escorts in the Persian Gulf, maintaining the free flow of oil during the Iran-Iraq war. Adhering to principles from his early life pertaining to Communism, Reagan gave also his support to anti-Communist insurgencies in Central America, Asia and Africa. In late October 1983, troops were ordered to invade the Caribbean Island of Grenada to overthrow the country’s anti-American dictatorship. The CIA worked openly to overturn the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua.
The damaging Iran-Contra Affair became public in late 1986. Charges that the Reagan administration had secretly sold arms to Iran and used profits from the sale to aid an insurgency in Nicaragua engulfed Reagan in the worst political scandal since Watergate. Congress prohibited aid to the contras from 1983 to 1986. Reagan’s determination to continue this struggle led members of his administration, most notably the National Security Council staff, into a variety of activities including the secret sale of arms to Iran and the clandestine diversion of profits to the contras. Reagan claimed not to have known of the diversion and a review board condemned his "management style" as inept. Senate hearings began in 1987. Those indicted were the National Security Council's John M. Poindexter and Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North. During North's trial in 1989 a document released by the defense suggested that both Reagan and Bush had been involved in an undercover scheme to secure outside aid for the contras in exchange for military-economic support for Honduras. By 1990 six former Reagan officials had been convicted in the affair. In eight hours of videotaped testimony about the arms plot, the former president repeatedly swore, "I don't recall."

President Reagan endured many health problems while in office. For eight hours on July 13, 1985, while Reagan was undergoing intestinal surgery, he formally transferred the power of his office to Vice-President Bush. It was the first time anyone had been designated acting president of the United States. Also, he had a cancerous growth removed during the operation. In 1987 Reagan once again underwent minor surgeries for urinary tract blockage, intestinal polyps, and a cancerous growth on his nose.

The national economy mirrored the contrast between the President’s upbeat mood and his recurring ailments. Job expansion and steady economic growth overcast worrisome trends. There were huge trade deficits and a 1985 budget deficit of $211 billion. In November 1986, the Democrats took control of the Senate by a wide margin. Reagan’s domestic policy agenda was depleted.

After a fumbling performance at the second summit conference with Soviet leader Gorbachev in Iceland, October 1986, doubts were intensified concerning the abilities of the now 75 year old President. Through his persistence in promoting his “Star Wars” initiative, it appeared that an agreement to reduce nuclear missiles would not occur. However, in December 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev meeting in Washington, DC, solved some of the differences and signed an agreement eliminating medium-range missiles in Europe. In late May 1988 in Moscow, they met once again and signed ratification documents of a treaty on intermediate and short-range missiles.

Prior to leaving office, Reagan created a 14th Cabinet department for veterans' affairs. Also, as part of a major anti-drug legislation he created the Cabinet-level post of "drug czar", Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. With Reagan’s popularity rating once again high, he helped to secure the election of his Vice President, George Bush to the Presidency on November 8, 1988.

The Reagan years saw the restoration of prosperity to the Nation. His goal of ‘peace through strength’ seemed to within reach. At the end of his two terms in office, Reagan was satisfied that his program to raise the spirits of the American people and reduce their reliance on the Government was a success. He was pleased that he had fulfilled his campaign pledge to restore “the great, confident roar of American progress and growth and optimism.” He had overseen the creation of budget and trade deficits as well as an historic truce in the cold war with the Soviet Union. Reagan was called the Teflon President in that neither the many political scandals regarding his subordinates nor the enormous budget deficits remained related to him. He was considered to be the most conservative nominee to win the office of President in the past fifty years. Although active in political causes throughout his acting career, Reagan did not seek public office until well into later life. He had not dedicated his life to politics or any public service profession. Reagan is the oldest person ever sworn into the office of President. His place in history, however, is yet unclear. During his tenure, the United States was transformed from the world’s leading creditor to the number one debtor when he left office

Reagan and his wife Nancy left Washington and retired to a California estate purchased by friends. His past reputation as “the great communicator” made him much in demand as a speaker. He had left Washington with an approval rating the highest of any President since World War II. The Reagan’s now live in solitude with the former President fighting his greatest battle, Alzheimer disease. His daughter Maureen now champions the cause of Alzheimer’s in many venues and public appearances.

By: Stanley Yavneh Klos
  • First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: 13 British Colonies United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774 (Georgia joined in 1775)  and governed through a British Colonial Continental Congress.  Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Second United American Republic: The United States of America: 13 Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 states on July 2nd, 1776 (New York abstained until July 8th), and governed through the United States Continental CongressJohn Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union was founded by 13 States on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation, and governed through the United States in Congress Assembled.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People  was formed by 11 states on March 4th, 1789 (North Carolina and Rhode Island joined in November 1789 and May 1790, respectively), with the enactment of the U.S. Constitution of 1787. The fourth and current United States Republic governs through  the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled, the U.S. President and Commander-in-Chief, and the U.S. Supreme Court.  George Washington served as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief.

The First United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United Colonies Presidents 
Sept. 5, 1774 to July 1, 1776

September 5, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 26, 1774
May 20, 1775
May 24, 1775
May 25, 1775
July 1, 1776

The Second United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United States Presidents 
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781

July 2, 1776
October 29, 1777
November 1, 1777
December 9, 1778
December 10, 1778
September 28, 1779
September 29, 1779
February 28, 1781

Commander-in-Chief United Colonies & States of America

George Washington: June 15, 1775 - December 23, 1783

The Third United American Republic
Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789

March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 10, 1781
Declined Office
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
February 1, 1787
February 2, 1787
January 21, 1788
January 22, 1788
January 21, 1789

The Fourth United American Republic
Presidents of the United States of America
D-Democratic Party, F-Federalist Party, I-Independent, R-Republican Party, R* Republican Party of Jefferson & W-Whig Party 

 (1881 - 1881)
*Confederate States  of America

Chart Comparing Presidential Powers 
of  America's Four United Republics - Click Here

United Colonies and States First Ladies


United Colonies Continental Congress
18th Century Term
09/05/74 – 10/22/74
Mary Williams Middleton (1741- 1761) Deceased
Henry Middleton
05/20/ 75 - 05/24/75
05/25/75 – 07/01/76
United States Continental Congress
07/02/76 – 10/29/77
Eleanor Ball Laurens (1731- 1770) Deceased
Henry Laurens
11/01/77 – 12/09/78
Sarah Livingston Jay (1756-1802)
12/ 10/78 – 09/28/78
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
09/29/79 – 02/28/81
United States in Congress Assembled
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
03/01/81 – 07/06/81
07/10/81 – 11/04/81
Jane Contee Hanson (1726-1812)
11/05/81 - 11/03/82
11/03/82 - 11/02/83
Sarah Morris Mifflin (1747-1790)
11/03/83 - 11/02/84
11/20/84 - 11/19/85
11/23/85 – 06/06/86
Rebecca Call Gorham (1744-1812)
06/06/86 - 02/01/87
02/02/87 - 01/21/88
01/22/88 - 01/29/89

Constitution of 1787
First Ladies
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
Martha Wayles Jefferson Deceased
September 6, 1782  (Aged 33)
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825
March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829
December 22, 1828 (aged 61)
February 5, 1819 (aged 35)
March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841
April 4, 1841 – September 10, 1842
June 26, 1844 – March 4, 1845
March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849
March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850
July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
February 22, 1862 – May 10, 1865
April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
January 12, 1880 (Aged 43)
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
March 4, 1889 – October 25, 1892
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913
March 4, 1913 – August 6, 1914
December 18, 1915 – March 4, 1921
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929
March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
January 20, 2009 to date

Capitals of the United Colonies and States of America

Sept. 5, 1774 to Oct. 24, 1774
May 10, 1775 to Dec. 12, 1776
Dec. 20, 1776 to Feb. 27, 1777
March 4, 1777 to Sept. 18, 1777
September 27, 1777
Sept. 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778
July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783
June 30, 1783 to Nov. 4, 1783
Nov. 26, 1783 to Aug. 19, 1784
Nov. 1, 1784 to Dec. 24, 1784
New York City
Jan. 11, 1785 to Nov. 13, 1788
New York City
October 6, 1788 to March 3,1789
New York City
March 3,1789 to August 12, 1790
Dec. 6,1790 to May 14, 1800       
Washington DC
November 17,1800 to Present

Book a primary source exhibit and a professional speaker for your next event by contacting today. Our Clients include many Fortune 500 companies, associations, non-profits, colleges, universities, national conventions, pr and advertising agencies. As the leading exhibitor of primary sources, many of our clients have benefited from our historic displays that are designed to entertain and educate your target audience. Contact us to learn how you can join our "roster" of satisfied clientele today!

A Non-profit Corporation

Primary Source Exhibits

2000 Louisiana Avenue | Venue 15696
New Orleans, Louisiana, 70115

727-771-1776 | Exhibit Inquiries

202-239-1774 | Office

Dr. Naomi and Stanley Yavneh Klos, Principals

Primary Source exhibits are available for display in your community. The costs range from $1,000 to $35,000 depending on length of time on loan and the rarity of artifacts chosen. 


Middle and High School Curriculum Supplement
For More Information Click Here

U.S. Dollar Presidential Coin Mr. Klos vs Secretary Paulson - Click Here

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.