Rutherford Hayes

President Rutherford B. Hayes
Click Here to view the US Mint & Coin Acts 1782-1792
19th President of the United States

under the Constitution of 1787

Message of President Rutherford B. Hayes nominating William M. Evarts to be Secretary of State - Courtesy of: National Archives and Records Administration
RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES was born on October 22, 1822 in Delaware, Ohio, nearly three months after the death of his father, Rutherford Hayes. The elder Hayes had left his native Vermont in 1817 to emigrate to the West, bringing with him his wife, Sophia Birchard of Wilmington, Vermont, his two young children and his wife’s brother, Sardis Birchard. They settled in the town of Delaware, Ohio, where he purchased an interest in a distillery and built a considerable house. He died of the malarial epidemic that swept the region, leaving his wife with a child on the way, to the care of her brother.


Students and Teachers of US History this is a video of Stanley and Christopher Klos presenting America's Four United Republics Curriculum at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. The December 2015 video was an impromptu capture by a member of the audience of Penn students, professors and guests that numbered about 200.

Rutherford B. Hayes was a sickly child and when he was three years old, his older brother Lorenzo drowned, leaving his mother very apprehensive of young Rutherford’s health and well-being. She kept him from school in his early childhood and he became timid with an aversion to the rough and mischievous ways of other boys. The boy’s sole companion was his sister Fanny, a bright active tomboy, two years older than himself. When he did attend school, he was an excellent student and gave his teachers no trouble. His uncle Birchard, who had been devoted to the family, took a strong interest in the boy’s schooling and decided to send young Hayes to a tutor in Connecticut where he remained for a year. On his return, he was sent to Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio and he graduated first in his class in 1842.




Hayes decided to pursue a law profession and began his studies at the office of Mr. Thomas Sparrow in Columbus. With his uncle’s approval, he attended Harvard Law School and received his degree in 1845. He was admitted to the Ohio bar and went into practice with Ralph P. Buckland in Fremont. This partnership lasted three years. Hayes uncle Sardis Birchard had by this time become a wealthy banker and the Hayes family was benefiting from his wealth. In 1849, young Hayes moved to Cincinnati, where he established his practice and made contact with some of the leading men of the city. He also renewed his friendship with his college schoolmate, Stanley Matthews and entered local politics in the new Republican Party. Within a few years he had made a name for himself as a criminal lawyer. Hayes mother had chosen a girl for him. She was Lucy Ware Webb, whom Hayes had first met at his home in Delaware when she was 15. They became engaged after she was graduated from Wesleyan Female College in Cincinnati and they were married in December 1852. Hayes was then 30 and Lucy, although only 21 was warmhearted, popular and very religious. Their first son, Birchard Austin, was born in 1853.




Hayes was a strong supporter of the Union, despite his hopes for a compromise on the issue of the Civil War. When the War broke out, he answered the call for troops in April 1861 and served the Union well for the next four years. He was wounded four times and had four horses shot out from under him. In the spring of 1865 he was placed in command of an expedition against Lynchburg when the war was brought to a close by Lee’s surrender.

Hayes was nominated and elected to Congress while still in the army, but he refused to leave his command until the war was over. He took his seat I the House in December 1865 and was reelected in 1866. He made few speeches and took no part in the debates over reconstruction and always voted along party lines. In 1867 and again in 1869, Hayes was elected Governor of Ohio. He proved a capable and economical administrator, taking great interest in prison reform and in hospitals for the mentally ill. His beloved sister Fanny had been hospitalized more than once for mental illness.




In 1873 Hayes decided he was finished with politics and he retired with is family to his uncle’s house, Spiegel Grove, in Fremont. His uncle died the following year and left the bulk of his large estate (mostly land) to Hayes. The Hayeses now had five children (three had died in childhood). The oldest boys, Birchard, Webb and Rutherford were at college. At home were Fanny, seven and Scott Russell, four. Hayes was the leading citizen of Fremont and was listed in the directory as a “capitalist”. His retirement was brief, however, after one year he was persuaded to run for Congress. He was defeated, but he ran again, this time for Governor of Ohio in 1875. Hayes defeated Democratic Governor William Allen, but only by 5,500 votes out of nearly 600,000 cast. Although his victory was narrow, his success made him a strong presidential possibility in 1876. The Republican Party liked him for many reasons, his integrity being one, and Hayes himself thought he had a good chance and actively sought and received their nomination.

Hayes Democratic opponent in 1876 was Samuel J. Tilden, the Governor of New York. When the election returns were counted, Tilden had won the popular vote by about 247,448 out of a total cast of 8,320,592. However, both men claimed an electoral vote victory. There had been a controversy pending for some time in Congress regarding the manner that the Electoral votes of several states were counted and declared. The dispute was settled by the appointment of the Electoral Commission of 1877. On March 2, 1877, the result of the proceedings was the declaration of Rutherford B. Hayes by a vote of 185 electoral votes to Tilden’s 184.




On March 5, 1877, Hayes was inaugurated. He realized that the presidency was weak and the Congress strong, and he did not please many legislators with the tone of his inauguration speech. “He serves his party best who serves his country best” was his much-quoted statement. In April the last of the federal troops were withdrawn from the South and the long period of reconstruction after the Civil War was finally ended.


Rutherford B. Hayes Partly-printed 1879 military commission signed  as President
and co-signed by Secretary of War George McCrary 


In June 1877, Hayes issued an executive order directing federal workers not to take part in the management of political parties and campaigns and forbade the parties to demand contributions from federal employees. His administration uncovered a civil service scandal in the New York Custom House. Many of its employees (Chester a. Arthur, later president of the United States, and Alonzo B. Cornell, later Governor of New York, among them) ignored their jobs and worked instead at Republican Party politics. Hayes sponsored a bill in Congress for broad civil service reform and although the bill was defeated, it brought public awareness to the need for reform.

Hayes firmness and disregard of all matters but those of principle and conviction were displayed on many occasions. His purity of purpose, courage and consistency were rarely questioned, but his Democratic opposition was bitter and the support of Republicans was at best mediocre. He opposed the reelection of Presidents and affirmed his not being a candidate for reelection under any circumstances. He advocated an amendment to the constitution extending the president’s term to six years and prohibiting reelections. At the end of his term, Hayes retired quietly to his home in Fremont, Ohio. His public career ended with his retirement and he led a tranquil life, appearing as a distinguished guest at many public celebrations and reunions.

Hayes died on January 17, 1893 at Spiegel Grove, his home in Fremont, Ohio, after suffering an apparent heart attack.



By: Stanley Yavneh Klos
  • First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: 13 British Colonies United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774 (Georgia joined in 1775)  and governed through a British Colonial Continental Congress.  Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Second United American Republic: The United States of America: 13 Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 states on July 2nd, 1776 (New York abstained until July 8th), and governed through the United States Continental CongressJohn Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union was founded by 13 States on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation, and governed through the United States in Congress Assembled.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People  was formed by 11 states on March 4th, 1789 (North Carolina and Rhode Island joined in November 1789 and May 1790, respectively), with the enactment of the U.S. Constitution of 1787. The fourth and current United States Republic governs through  the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled, the U.S. President and Commander-in-Chief, and the U.S. Supreme Court.  George Washington served as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief.

The First United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United Colonies Presidents 
Sept. 5, 1774 to July 1, 1776


September 5, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 26, 1774
May 20, 1775
May 24, 1775
May 25, 1775
July 1, 1776


The Second United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United States Presidents 
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781

July 2, 1776
October 29, 1777
November 1, 1777
December 9, 1778
December 10, 1778
September 28, 1779
September 29, 1779
February 28, 1781


Commander-in-Chief United Colonies & States of America

George Washington: June 15, 1775 - December 23, 1783


The Third United American Republic
Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789

March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 10, 1781
Declined Office
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
February 1, 1787
February 2, 1787
January 21, 1788
January 22, 1788
January 21, 1789





The Fourth United American Republic
Presidents of the United States of America







Chart Comparing Presidential Powers 
of  America's Four United Republics - Click Here


United Colonies and States First Ladies


1774-1788


United Colonies Continental Congress
President
18th Century Term
Age
09/05/74 – 10/22/74
29
Mary Williams Middleton (1741- 1761) Deceased
Henry Middleton
10/22–26/74
n/a
05/20/ 75 - 05/24/75
30
05/25/75 – 07/01/76
28
United States Continental Congress
President
Term
Age
07/02/76 – 10/29/77
29
Eleanor Ball Laurens (1731- 1770) Deceased
Henry Laurens
11/01/77 – 12/09/78
n/a
Sarah Livingston Jay (1756-1802)
12/ 10/78 – 09/28/78
21
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
09/29/79 – 02/28/81
41
United States in Congress Assembled
President
Term
Age
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
03/01/81 – 07/06/81
42
07/10/81 – 11/04/81
25
Jane Contee Hanson (1726-1812)
11/05/81 - 11/03/82
55
11/03/82 - 11/02/83
46
Sarah Morris Mifflin (1747-1790)
11/03/83 - 11/02/84
36
11/20/84 - 11/19/85
46
11/23/85 – 06/06/86
38
Rebecca Call Gorham (1744-1812)
06/06/86 - 02/01/87
42
02/02/87 - 01/21/88
43
01/22/88 - 01/29/89
36



Constitution of 1787
First Ladies
President
Term
Age
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
57
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
52
Martha Wayles Jefferson Deceased
September 6, 1782  (Aged 33)
n/a
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
40
March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825
48
March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829
50
December 22, 1828 (aged 61)
n/a
February 5, 1819 (aged 35)
n/a
March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841
65
April 4, 1841 – September 10, 1842
50
June 26, 1844 – March 4, 1845
23
March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849
41
March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850
60
July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853
52
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857
46
n/a
n/a
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
42
February 22, 1862 – May 10, 1865
April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
54
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877
43
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
45
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
48
January 12, 1880 (Aged 43)
n/a
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
21
March 4, 1889 – October 25, 1892
56
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
28
March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901
49
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
40
March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913
47
March 4, 1913 – August 6, 1914
52
December 18, 1915 – March 4, 1921
43
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
60
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929
44
March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933
54
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
48
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
60
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
56
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
31
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
50
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
56
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
56
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
49
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
59
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
63
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
45
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
54
January 20, 2009 to date
45





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