Sunday, September 16, 2012

United States Presidency


The Presidencies of the United Colonies & States of America



September 5, 1774 to Present
By Stanley Y. Klos

U.S. Presidential scholars have aptly compared and contrasted the differences between the current  office of President under the US Constitution of 1787 with the Presidential office that once presided over the American Continental Congress. Scholarly work, however, on the dichotomy between the Continental Congress and the USCA Presidents (Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled) is woefully deficient.  Moreover, most works on the early Presidents (1774-1788) mistakenly combine the Continental Congress and USCA Presidents of Congress, as "Continental Congress Presidents."  



 For More Information go to 
America's Four United Republics


To understand the differences between these presidencies, we turn to the book, America's Four Republics: The More of Less United States, that organizes the U.S. Founding into four distinctly different United American Republics. 





I. The First United American Republic was established on September 5th, 1774 when a convention of 11 British North American Colonies assembled in a Continental Congress of, they initially named, the United Colonies of North America. The members elected Virginia Delegate Peyton Randolph as the presiding officer, or President of the First Continental Congress.  In an entirely different office, George Washington was elected,  Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, on June 15th, 1775.


The First United American Republic

Continental Congress of the United Colonies Presidents 
Sept. 5, 1774 to July 1, 1776


September 5, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 26, 1774
May 20, 1775
May 24, 1775
May 25, 1775
July 1, 1776


Commander-in-Chief United Colonies of America
George Washington: June 15, 1775 - July 1, 1776




II. The Second United American Republic was established in 1776 when 12 States in the Continental Congress (New York abstained) passed the Resolution of Independence (July 2, 1776) and the Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) declaring the Colonies “Free and Independent States.” Massachusetts Delegate John Hancock executed both resolutions as President of the United States Continental Congress.  The New York Provincial Congress approved the two Continental Congress independence resolutions on July 9th, 1776 thus making the Declaration of Independence unanimous.  The Declaration of Independence was the resolution that changed the name of the United Colonies of America to the United States of America. George Washington continued his service  as General and Commander-in-Chief of, the newly named, United States Continental Army.  

The Second United American Republic
Continental Congress of the United States Presidents 
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781

July 2, 1776
October 29, 1777
November 1, 1777
December 9, 1778
December 10, 1778
September 28, 1779
September 29, 1779
February 28, 1781


Commander-in-Chief United States of America
George Washington:  July 2, 1776 - February 28, 1781



III.  The Third United American Republic was established on March 1, 1781 when the United States Continental Congress enacted the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation.  Although the Articles of Confederation was passed by the U.S. Continental Congress on November 15th, 1777, this Constitution of 1777 required the unanimous  ratification by all the 13 states.   Maryland was the last state to adopt the Articles of Confederation, completing its ratification on February 2, 1781. On February 22, 1781, it was unanimously resolved by Congress that:
The delegates of Maryland having taken their seats in Congress with powers to sign the Articles of Confederation: Ordered, That Thursday next [March 1, 1781] be assigned for compleating the Confederation; and that a committee of three be appointed, to consider and report a mode for announcing the same to the public: the members, [Mr. George] Walton, Mr. [James] Madison, Mr. [John] Mathews.


18th Century Journals of U.S. CONTINENTAL CONGRESS and USCA Congress for 1781 showing votes to adopt the 13 States ratification of the Articles of Confederation.  No matter how many delegates a state had they had only one vote. – Klos Yavneh Collection

The March 1st, 1781, enacted Constitution of 1777 provided for a unicameral governing body called the United States in Congress Assembled (USCA) to govern the United States of America.  The USCA was charged " .. to appoint one of their members to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years." 

On March 2nd, 1781, the Delegates, who were duly elected after each State had ratified the Articles of Confederation, convened in Philadelphia as the United States in Congress Assembled with Samuel Huntington presiding as the first USCA President.  Additionally, George Washington continued to serve as General and Commander-in-Chief of the United States Continental Army. 


Journals of the United States in Congress Assembled, March 2, 1781  entry recording "His excellency Samuel Huntington, delegate for Connecticut, President."

The Constitution of 1777 Presidency, although similar to its predecessor, was a different and weaker office then that of the U.S. Continental Congress Presidency.

For instance, the Continental Congress Presidents, who served from September 5, 1774 to February 28, 1781, presided over a government that could enact legislation binding all 13 States with only a seven state quorum as opposed to the nine state minimum required by the Constitution of 1777. Additionally, Continental Congress Presidents, who decided what legislation came before Congress, often found themselves as the sole vote for their state,  giving them a 1/7th to 1/13th vote over crucial legislation, appointments, judicial decisions, and even military orders enacted during the Revolutionary War.  After March 1, 1781, the Constitution of 1777 mandated that two or more delegates must be present from each state for that delegation to be marked present and be eligible to vote in the new USCA government.   Therefore, on March 2nd, 1781, the first act of the USCA was to disqualify both New Hampshire and Rhode Island from voting in the new assembly because they each had only one delegate present.




Who was the first U.S. President?

On May 4, 1781, to further weaken presidential powers, Congress passed the "Rules for conducting business in the United States in Congress assembled." that stripped the President of his power to control the congressional agenda which, was a tactic that the presiding officers (especially Henry Laurens) had expertly wielded as Continental Congress Presidents. These new USCA rules even went so far as to eliminate the President's prerogative to continue the debate, before a second to the motion was brought to the floor.
Rule 10. When a motion is made and seconded it shall be repeated by the President or If he or any other member desire being in writing it shall be delivered to the President in writing and read aloud at the table before it, shall be debated. 
There are numerous other examples on the differences between the two offices that range from the USCA's Committee of the States experiment to govern the USA by a "Board of Directors" without the USCA President at its head to John Hanson's success in championing the congressional resolution that moved the bulk of his presidential correspondence duties to USCA Secretary Charles Thomson. Moreover, USCA Foreign Secretaries Robert R. Livingston and John Jay took over most of the U.S. Presidential duties of entertaining foreign diplomats and dignitaries under the Articles of Confederation government.

Finally, the President of the United States in Congress Assembled, the the Presidents of the Continental Congress would receive only a Delegate Salary from their home States.  The only compensation the President would receive was for his household expenses as evidenced below:

1785 Broadside of the "Estimate of the Annual Expenditure of the Civil Departments of the United States, on the present Establishment" indicating the expenditure for President Richard Henry Lee's household was $11,203.13.  The President was paid no salary for that office but did received a salary from his home State at the same rate of his fellow Virginia Delegates.   


1785 Broadside of the "Estimate of the Annual Expenditure of the Civil Departments of the United States, on the present Establishment" -  It is important to note that no paper Continental dollars were issued after 1779, and they had stopped circulating as money by 1781. In 1785, the United States in Congress Assembled made the dollar the official unit of account of the U.S. government, but did not issue physical dollar currency, thus by "dollars" they meant the Spanish milled dollar.  No one denominated any transactions in Continental paper dollars after 1781. Now, banknotes denominated in dollar units (again meaning Spanish milled dollars) were being used from 1781 on (Bank of North America, several state banks, and then the First Bank  of the US), but these notes were not official legal tender currency before Alexander Hamilton, as Secretary of the Treasury, simply declared paper banknote dollars of several banks as good as Spanish milled dollars for paying Federal taxes.It would not be until 1792 that the US Mint struck its own silver dollar at a slightly different value (weight) then Spanish milled dollar.  Spanish milled dollars, along with many other foreign specie coins, remained a legal tender in the United States until 1854. - Email Excerpt paraphrased from Dr. Farley Grubb, Economics Professor, University of Delaware.



"General George Washington Resigning His Commission" by John Trumbull (1756–1843) - Circa 1817 and placed in the United States Capitol rotunda in Washington D.C. in 1824. Its dimensions are 144" in × 216" inches.  General George Washington resigned his commission as Commander-in-Chief of the Army to the Congress, which was then meeting at the Maryland State House in Annapolis, on December 23, 1783. This action was of great significance in establishing civilian, rather than military rule, leading to a republic, rather than a dictatorship. Washington stands with two aides-de-camp addressing the President of the United States in Congress Assembled, Thomas Mifflin,  Elbridge Gerry, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, James Madison, Thomas Stone,William Ellery, Roger Sherman and other delegates.  



George Washington continued to serve as General and Commander-in-Chief of the United States Continental Army until December 23, 1783. On that date, in Annapolis, Maryland, Washington submitted his resignation to President Thomas Mifflin during a regular session of the United States in Congress Assembled.  The USCA would not appoint another Commander-in-Chief in its remaining five years as the unicameral federal government of the United States.

On September 13th the Delegates “finally passed, without a dissentient voice or the least apparent animosity,” a federal capital location and the USCA enacted this enabling resolution: 

… whereas the constitution so reported by the Convention and by Congress transmitted to the several legislatures has been ratified in the manner therein declared to be sufficient for the establishment of the same and such ratifications duly authenticated have been received by Congress and are filed in the Office of the Secretary therefore Resolved That the first Wednesday in January next be the day for appointing Electors in the several states, which before the said day shall have ratified the said constitution; that the first Wednesday in February next be the day for the electors to assemble in their respective states and vote for a president; and that the first Wednesday in March next be the time and the present seat of Congress the place for commencing proceedings under the said constitution.[1]

Virginia delegate Henry Lee delivered the news on the 13th to George Washington noting that the capital would remain in New York and added this paragraph on the new U.S. Presidency:

It would certainly be unpleasant to you & obnoxious to all who feel for your just fame, to see you at the head of a tumbling system. It is a sacrifice on your part, unjustifiable in any point of view. But on the other hand no alternative seems to be present. Without you the govt. can have but little chance of success, & the people of that happiness, which its prosperity must yield.[2]

The USCA continued to try and form a quorum after Griffin's Presidential term expired as evidenced by Tench Coxe letter to James Madison on January 27th, 1789:

"I have been here about a Fortnight during which time we have not made a Congress. So. Carolina, Virga, Pennsa, N. Jersey, & Massachussets are represented. There is one Member from each of the States of Rhode Island, N. Carolina & Georgia, but none from New Hampshire, Connecticut, N. York, Delaware or Maryland. I very much wish we may make a house in a week or ten days, as I think the Appearance in Europe, & perhaps even here, of the old Congress being in full operation and tranquilly yielding the seats to the new would have a good effect. The misrepresentations in Europe have been extremely gross, and must have an unfavorable effect upon Emigration in the poorer ranks of life. Col. Wadsworth has been mentiond as President. I respect him much, but I wish to give appearance to the old System by a Character of rather more celebrity. Mr. Adams would meet my Judgment better than any member of the present house. The principal Objection is his Absence, which I fear will deprive him of his chance." 
A quorum never formed and the Articles of Confederation Presidency ended with Cyrus Griffin on January 21, 1789. From January 22, 1789, until George Washington took office under the Constitution of 1787 on April 30th, 1789, there was no one serving as "President" in the United States of American Republic.  

The last entry in USCA Journals is dated, March 2, 1789 and records Mr Philip Pell, the Delegate from New York, attending the last quorum call.   On March 3rd, 1789, the unicameral government known as the United States in Congress Assembled simply faded away with only North Carolina and Rhode Island still ascribing to the defunct "Perpetual Union." 

Articles of Confederation and Constitution of 1787 language establishing its respective offices of President.



The Third United American Republic
Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789

March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 10, 1781
Declined Office
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
February 1, 1787
February 2, 1787
January 21, 1788
January 22, 1788
January 21, 1789


Commander-in-Chief United States of America
George Washington:  March 1, 1781 - December 23, 1783





Articles of Confederation Congress
United States in Congress Assembled (USCA) Sessions


USCA
Session Dates
USCA Convene Date
President(s)
First
11-05-1780 to 11-04-1781*
03-02-1781
Second
11-05-1781 to 11-03-1782
11-05-1781
Third
11-04-1782 to 11-02-1783
11-04-1782
Fourth
11-03-1783 to 10-31-1784
11-03-1783
Fifth
11-01-1784 to 11-06-1785
11-29-1784
Sixth
11-07-1785 to 11-05-1786
11-23-1785
Seventh
11-06-1786 to 11-04-1787
02-02-1787
Eighth
11-05-1787 to 11-02-1788
01-21-1788
Ninth
11-03-1788 to 03-03-1789**
None
None

* The Articles of Confederation was ratified by the mandated 13th State on February 2, 1781, and the dated adopted by the Continental Congress to commence the new  United States in Congress Assembled government was March 1, 1781.  The USCA convened under the Articles of Confederation Constitution on March 2, 1781.  

** On September 14, 1788, the Eighth United States in Congress Assembled resolved that March 4th, 1789, would be commencement date of the Constitution of 1787's federal government thus dissolving the USCA on March 3rd, 1789.






IV.  The Fourth United American Republic was established by the United States Constitution of 1787 and commenced, as resolved by an act of the USCA, on March 4th, 1789. The Constitution of 1787, unlike the Constitution of 1777, only required the ratification of nine states to adopt a new government for the United States of America. By August 1788 all thirteen states had held ratifying conventions and only two, North Carolina and Rhode Island, failed to adopt the Constitution of 1787. On September 13th, 1788 the USCA Delegates agreed on a federal capital location, without a dissentient voice or the least apparent animosity, and this was the last obstacle in finalizing the plan to launch the current federal republic.  The USCA, on the same day, enacted this enabling resolution: 
… whereas the constitution so reported by the Convention and by Congress transmitted to the several legislatures has been ratified in the manner therein declared to be sufficient for the establishment of the same and such ratifications duly authenticated have been received by Congress and are filed in the Office of the Secretary therefore Resolved That the first Wednesday in January next be the day for appointing Electors in the several states, which before the said day shall have ratified the said constitution; that the first Wednesday in February next be the day for the electors to assemble in their respective states and vote for a president; and that the first Wednesday in March next be the time and the present seat of Congress the place for commencing proceedings under the said constitution.
US Constitution of 1787,  United States in Congress Assembled  Enabling Resolution Broadside date September 13th, 1788, and signed by USCA Secretary Charles Thomson.
Tuesday, March 3rd, 1789, was established as the last day the USCA would govern the United States of America. 

On Wednesday, March 4th, 1789, neither the United States House of Representatives or the Senate was able to achieve their constitutionally mandated quorums.  The March 4, 1789 Journal of the House of Representatives reports:


NEW HAMPSHIRE, MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, NEW YORK, NEW JERSEY, PENNSYLVANIA, DELAWARE, MARYLAND,
VIRGINIA, SOUTH CAROLINA, and GEORGIA:


Being the eleven States have respectively ratified the Constitution of Government of the United States, proposed by the Federal Convention, held in Philadelphia, on the 17th of September, 1787.
Congress of the United States, begun and held at the city of New York, on Wednesday, the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine, pursuant to a resolution of the late Congress, made in conformity to the resolutions of the Federal Convention of the 17th September, 1787; being the first session of the Congress held under the Constitution aforesaid. On which day, the following members of the House of Representatives appeared and took their seats, to wit:
From Massachusetts,George Thatcher,Fisher Ames,George Leonard, andElbridge Gerry.From Connecticut,Benjamin Huntington,Jonathan Trumbull, andJeremiah Wadsworth.From Pennsylvania,Frederick Augustus Muhlenberg,Thomas Hartley,Peter Muhlenberg, andDaniel Heister.From Virginia, ... Alexander White.From South Carolina, ... Thomas Tudor Tucker.
But a quorum of the whole number not being present, the House adjourned until to-morrow morning eleven o'clock.
On April 1st, 1789, the United States House of Representatives achieved its first quorum. On April 6th, 1789, the United States Senate achieved its first quorum and elected its officers.  On April 21st, 1789 John Adams took the oath of Vice President and presided as United States Senate President. 


George Washington's April 30th, 1789, inauguration oil painting, Circa 1899 by Ramon de Elorriaga
On April 30th, 1789, George Washington was inaugurated at Federal Hall as the first President and Commander-in-Chief of the United States of America. 


Broadside Announcing Ceremonial for Washington's Inauguration, 29 April 1789

THE Committees of both Houses of Congress, appointed to take order for conducting the ceremonial of the formal reception, &c. of the President of the United Stares, on Thursday next, have agreed to the following order thereon, viz.

That General Webb, Colonel Smith, Lieutenant-Colonel Fish, Lieut. Col. Franks, Major L'Enfant, Major Bleecker, and Mr. John R. Livingston, be requested to serve as Assistants on the occasion.

That a chair he placed in the Senate-Chamber for the President of the United States. That a chair be placed in the Senate-Chamber for the Vice-President, to the right of the President’s chair; and that the Senators take their seats on that side of the chamber on which the Vice-President’s chair shall be placed. That a chair be placed in the Senate-Chamber for the Speaker of the House of Representatives, to the left of the President’s chair—and that the Representatives take their seats on that side of the chamber on which the Speaker’s chair shall be placed.

That seats be provided in the Senate-Chamber sufficient to accommodate the late President of the United States in Congress Assembled [Cyrus Griffin of Virginia], the Governor of the Western territory [Arthur St Clair], the five persons being the heads of the three great departments [Secretary of Foreign Affairs John Jay, Secretary of War Henry Knox, Commissioners of the Treasury Arthur Lee, Walter Livingston, and Samuel Osgood], the Minister Plenipotentiary of France [Eleanor Francois Elie, Cpmte de Moustier], the Encargado de negocios of Spain [Don Diego de Gardoqui], the Chaplains of Congress [Bishop Samuel Provoost. Dr. William Liin], the persons in the suite of the President:42 and also to accommodate the following Public Officers of the State, viz. The Governor [George Clinton], the Lieutenant-Governor [Pierre Van Cortlandt], the Chancellor [Robert R. Livingston], the Chief Justice [Richard Morris], and other Judges of the Supreme Court [Robert Yates, Jon Sloss Hobart], and the Mayor of the city [James Duane]. That one of the Assistants wait on these gentlemen, and inform them that seats are provided for their accommodation, and also to signify to them that no precedence of seats is intended, and that no salutation is expected from them on their entrance into, or their departure from the Senate-Chamber.

That the members of both Houses assemble in their respective Chambers precisely at twelve o’clock, and that the Representatives preceded by the Speaker, and attended by their Clerk, and other Officers proceed to the Senate-Chamber, there to be received by the Vice-President and Senators rising.

That the Committees attend the President from his residence to the Senate-Chamber, and that he be there received by the Vice-President, the Senators and Representatives rising, and be by the Vice-President conducted to his chair.

That after the President shall be seated in his Chair and the Vice-President, Senators and Representatives shall be again seated, the Vice-President shall announce to the President that the members of both Houses will attend him to be present at his taking the Oath of Office required by the Constitution. To the end that the Oath of Office may be administered to the President in the most public manner, and that the greatest number of the people of the United States and without distinction, may be witnesses to the solemnity, that therefore the Oath be administered in the outer Gallery adjoining to the Senate Chamber.

That when the President shall proceed to the gallery to take the Oath, he be attended by the Vice-President, and be followed by the Chancellor of the State, and pass through the door on the right, and the Representatives, preceded by the Speaker, pass through the door on the left, and such of the persons who shall have been admitted into the Senate-Chamber, and may be desirous to go into the gallery, are then also to pass through the door on the right. That when the President shall have taken the Oath, and returned into the Senate-Chamber, attended by the Vice-President, and shall be seated in his chair, that the Senators and the Representatives also return into the Senate-Chamber, and that the Vice-President and they resume their respective seats.

Both Houses having resolved to accompany the President after he shall have taken the Oath, to St. Paul’s Chapel, to hear divine service, to be performed by the Chaplain of Congress, that the following order of procession be observed, viz. The door-keeper [Gifford Dalley] and messenger [‘Ihomas Claxton] of the House of Representatives. The Clerk of the House [John Beckley]. The Representatives. The Speaker. The President, with the Vice-President at his left hand. The Senators. The Secretary of the Senate [Samuel A. Otis]. The door-keeper [James Mathews] and messenger [Cornelius Maxwell] of the Senate.

That a Pew be reserved for the President—Vice-President—Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Committees; and that pews be also reserved sufficient for the reception of the Senators and Representatives.

That after divine service shall be performed, the President be received at the door of the Church, by the Committees, and by them attended in carriages to his residence.

That it be intrusted to the Assistants to take proper precautions for keeping the avenues to the Hall open, and that for that purpose, they wait on his Excellency the Governor of this State, and in the name of the Committees request his aid, by an order or recommendation to the Civil Officers, or militia of the city, to attend and serve on the occasion, as he shall judge most proper.




 


On September 24th, 1789, the United States Congress set the yearly salary of the United States President at $25,000 and the Vice President at $5,000.  The 1789  Presidential salary of $25,000 translates to $672,000 in 2012 dollars. Currently  the US Presidential salary is $400,000/year, plus a $50,000 non-taxable expense account. The compensation of the President is controlled by law,  Compensation of the President: Title 3, Section 102.

The Supreme Court was first called to assemble on On February 1, 1790, in the Merchants Exchange Building in New York City. The first Supreme Court was made up of Chief Justice, John Jay, from New York and Associate Justices:
John Rutledge, from South Carolina;William Cushing, from Massachusetts;James Wilson, from Pennsylvania;John Blair, from Virginia.
The current President and Commander-in-Chief of the United States of America
Honorable Barack H. Obama


The Fourth United American Republic
Presidents of the United States of America



Capitals of the United States and Colonies of America

Philadelphia
Sept. 5, 1774 to Oct. 24, 1774
Philadelphia
May 10, 1775 to Dec. 12, 1776
Baltimore
Dec. 20, 1776 to Feb. 27, 1777
Philadelphia
March 4, 1777 to Sept. 18, 1777
Lancaster
September 27, 1777
York
Sept. 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778
Philadelphia
July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783
Princeton
June 30, 1783 to Nov. 4, 1783
Annapolis
Nov. 26, 1783 to Aug. 19, 1784
Trenton
Nov. 1, 1784 to Dec. 24, 1784
New York City
Jan. 11, 1785 to Nov. 13, 1788
New York City
Nov. 1788 to March 3,1789
New York City
March 3,1789 to August 12, 1790
Philadelphia
December 6,1790 to May 14, 1800
Washington DC
November 17,1800 to Present


Current Order of Presidential Succession

The Vice President
Speaker of the House
President pro tempore of the Senate
Secretary of State
Secretary of the Treasury
Secretary of Defense
Attorney General
Secretary of the Interior
Secretary of Agriculture
Secretary of Commerce
Secretary of Labor
Secretary of Health and Human Services
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Secretary of Transportation
Secretary of Energy
Secretary of Education
Secretary of Veterans Affairs


For more more information on the U.S. Presidents and the U.S. Constitutions, please click on the appropriate side bar links.



By: Stanley Yavneh Klos
  • First United American Republic: United Colonies of North America: 13 British Colonies United in Congress was founded by 12 colonies on September 5th, 1774 (Georgia joined in 1775)  and governed through a British Colonial Continental Congress.  Peyton Randolph and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief;
  • Second United American Republic: The United States of America: 13 Independent States United in Congress was founded by 12 states on July 2nd, 1776 (New York abstained until July 9th), and governed through the United States Continental CongressJohn Hancock and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Third United American Republic: The United States of America: A Perpetual Union was founded by 13 States on March 1st, 1781, with the enactment of the first U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation, and governed through the United States in Congress Assembled.  Samuel Huntington and George Washington served, respectively, as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief; 
  • Fourth United American Republic: The United States of America: We the People  was formed by 11 states on March 4th, 1789 (North Carolina and Rhode Island joined in November 1789 and May 1790, respectively), with the enactment of the U.S. Constitution of 1787. The fourth and current United States Republic governs through  the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in Congress Assembled, the U.S. President and Commander-in-Chief, and the U.S. Supreme Court.  George Washington served as the Republic's first President and Commander-in-Chief.
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Dad, why are you a Republican?

[1] Journals of the USCA, September 13, 1788.
[2] Letters of the Delegates, Henry Lee to George Washington, September 13, 1788




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